Exception Handling in Python

Exception handling is an essential aspect of writing robust and error-tolerant Python code. It allows you to gracefully handle unexpected situations and prevent your program from crashing. Here are the key elements of exception handling in Python:

1. Try-Except Blocks:

  • Use try and except blocks to handle exceptions.
  • Code inside the try block is executed, and if an exception occurs, it is caught and handled by the corresponding except block.
   try:
       # Code that might raise an exception
       result = 10 / 0
   except ZeroDivisionError as e:
       # Handle the specific exception
       print(f"Error: {e}")

2. Multiple Except Blocks:

  • You can handle different exceptions with multiple except blocks.
   try:
       # Code that might raise an exception
       value = int("string")
   except ValueError as e:
       print(f"ValueError: {e}")
   except TypeError as e:
       print(f"TypeError: {e}")

3. Generic Except Block:

  • You can use a generic except block to catch any unexpected exception.
   try:
       # Code that might raise an exception
       result = 10 / 0
   except Exception as e:
       # Handle any exception
       print(f"Error: {e}")

4. Else Block:

  • The else block is executed if no exceptions are raised in the try block.
   try:
       # Code that might raise an exception
       result = 10 / 2
   except ZeroDivisionError as e:
       print(f"Error: {e}")
   else:
       print(f"Result: {result}")

5. Finally Block:

  • The finally block is executed regardless of whether an exception occurs or not. It’s often used for cleanup operations.
   try:
       # Code that might raise an exception
       result = 10 / 2
   except ZeroDivisionError as e:
       print(f"Error: {e}")
   finally:
       print("Finally block: This will always execute.")

6. Custom Exceptions:

  • You can create your own custom exceptions by defining a new class that inherits from the Exception class. “`python
    class CustomError(Exception):
    pass try:
    raise CustomError(“This is a custom exception.”)
    except CustomError as e:
    print(f”Custom Error:
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